In the human skeletal system, the shoulder joint is the most mobile joint. The movement of shoulder allows you to rotate, take the hand forwards and backward; and lift your arm to reach overhead. This great range of motion comes at the cost of stability.
When the head of the humerus (arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket it causes the shoulder dislocation. The people who have recurrent shoulder dislocations are said to have an unstable shoulder or shoulder instability.
The problem of shoulder instability is more commonly seen in people who are associated with sporting activities, those who develop first shoulder dislocation at younger ages, whose shoulder is dislocated for longer durations before reduction, when shoulder dislocation is not immobilized properly after reduction, epileptics and in people with generalized ligamentous laxity.
Shoulder instability also has types like unidirectional which is usually traumatic in nature or multidirectional which is usually due to laxity.
There are various methods described to reduce acute shoulder dislocation. Although these methods are helpful, the most common and important factor for a successful reduction is time since injury, because, as the time passes the reduction becomes difficult due to soft tissue interposition and muscle spasms.
The management of recurrent shoulder instability is challenging. There are more than 100 procedures described for the treatment of this, all having their own merits and demerits!!